General Ecosystem Services Publications
The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital
Robert Costanza et al.
Nature, 387, 1997
A much referenced paper which for the first time estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16–54 trillion per year, with an average of US$33 trillion per year.
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
TEEB is a global initiative focused on “making nature’s values visible”. Its principal objective is to mainstream the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into decision-making at all levels. It aims to achieve this goal by following a structured approach to valuation that helps decision-makers recognize the wide range of benefits provided by ecosystems and biodiversity, demonstrate their values in economic terms and, where appropriate, capture those values in decision-making.
Arguments for Protected Areas: Multiple Benefits for Conservation and Use
Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (eds)
A concise overview of the ecosystem services provided by protected areas, written by over fifty contributing authors, presenting a global perspective. It examines a wide range of values, including food, water and materials; health; tourism; cultural and spiritual values; and buffering capacity against climate change and natural disasters. The book also considers the role of protected areas in poverty reduction strategies, their relationship with traditional and indigenous people and in fostering conflict resolution through peace parks initiatives.
Social and Economic Benefits of Protected Areas: An Assessment Guide
Marianne Kettunen and Patrick ten Brink (eds)
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the socio-economic benefits of protected areas and protected areas networks and provides step-by-step practical guidance on identifying, assessing and valuing the various ecosystem services and related benefits provided by protected areas.
Values and Benefits of Protected Areas
Sue Stolton and Nigel Dudley (Principal Authors)
ANU Press, 2015
This overview chapter in the IUCN WCPA E-book, Protected Area Governance and Management, provides an overview of the range of benefits that can come from protected areas and look at how these can be measured, utilized and managed.
The Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool: A methodology
Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton
The PA-BAT has been primarily designed for use by protected area managers to work with stakeholders to identify important values and the benefits that they bring to a range of stakeholders, from local to global. The PA-BAT can also be used by local communities to identify values/benefits and by protected area advocates, such as NGOs, to help promote the range of benefits a protected area can bring. Because the tool has developed a standard typology of values and benefits the results from the tool can also be aggregated to provide an overview for a portfolio of protected areas.
BES-Net: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Network
United Nations Development Programme
Understanding the link between benefits from protected areas and their relationship with surrounding communities: An exploration in Costa Rica
Sergio A. Molina-Murillo, Mauricio Fernández Otárola and Kelly N. Shreeve
This paper in the IUCN WCPA PARKS journal provides details of a study to understand the link between perceived socioeconomic and environmental benefits from protected areas and the perceived strength of the relationship between communities and their corresponding protected areas in Costa Rica.
Protected Areas for the 21st Century: Lessons from UNDP/GEF's Portfolio
Ervin, J., N. Sekhran, A. Dinu. S. Gidda, M. Vergeichik and J. Mee.
United Nations Development Programme and Montreal: Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010
This publication showcases success stories of UNDP-implemented projects financed by the GEF in supporting the implementation of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas. The report contains a wealth of information and case studies demonstrating why protected areas are one of the most efficient and effective strategies available for simultaneously addressing the global challenges of alleviating poverty, adapting to and mitigating climate change, and maintaining key ecosystem services.
Assessment of the Value of the Protected Area System of Ethiopia, “Making the Economic Case"
Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority, 2009
This study shows the economic value of protected areas is of immense benefit to the sustainable development of the Ethiopian economy and plays a significant role in the fight against poverty. However, indirect benefits, such as water provision for domestic consumption and irrigated agriculture, electricity production, carbon sequestration and the conservation of biodiversity far exceed the direct benefits derived by local communities in protected areas.
Link to General Ecosystem Service Publications Overview